Lead Acid, Nickel-based batteries and Lithium-based batteries transporting information from Battery University. Link here
Many battery types fall under strict transportation regulation. This is done for the safety of those handling them and the passengers traveling on a common carrier. Incidents of unscheduled battery events govern the firmness of the rules and the largest changes have evolved around lithium-based batteries. Here are the rules in short.
Data compiled by the FAA from 1991 to 2007 states that 27 percent of all incidents occurred with lithium batteries and 68 percent with other battery chemistries. With lithium battery, 68 percent failed by external and internal short circuits, 15 percent by charging and discharging and 7 percent by unintentional activation of devices; 12 percent covers the rest. About 70 percent of non-lithium incidents occurred by short circuit, 11 percent by unintentional activation of devices and 2 percent by charging and discharging; 17 percent covers the rest. In another study from 1991 to 2012, the FAA recorded 132 batteries leading to smoke, extreme heat, fire or explosion.