Author Archives: Maxim - Application Notes

Guidelines for the MAX5977’s Critical Component Placement and Routing

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This application note presents guidelines for the placement and routing of the most critical components and traces in a typical design for the MAX5977 high-performance, hot-swap, electronic fuse, high-side current-sense controller.

Overcoming Disorientation: Practical Ways to Assemble MEMS Inertial Sensors

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Component placement and mounting conditions can adversely affect MEMS inertial sensor performance. This application note contains practical considerations for enhancing sensor system operation where the “real-world” environment presents undesirable locomotive signals and system resonances. Topics include placement considerations on the PCB, external motion sources on the PCB (PCB resonance), and assembly mounting considerations.

Selecting the Best Data Converter for a Given Noise Budget: Part 3

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The practical use of industry data sheets is demonstrated to determine what system specifications can be achieved, in the presence of system errors, such as data-converter quantization, clock jitter, channel nonlinearity, and input- and output-referred noise. Design tools that aid in the analysis of these parameters, and constructive ways to control and reduce other system noise elements are highlighted.

Managing Noise in the Signal Chain, Part 2: Noise and Distortion in Data Converters

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Data converters incorporate the common semiconductor noise sources such as, shot, avalanche, flicker, and popcorn noise. In addition, real data converter systems have errors that include quantization, clock jitter, channel linearity, and bandwidth. Practical use of industry data sheets demonstrated to determine what system specifications can be achieved. Design tools that aid in the analysis of these parameters, and constructive ways to control and reduce other system noise elements will be presented.

Managing Noise in the Signal Chain, Part 1: Annoying Semiconductor Noise, Preventable or Inescapable?

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Generally speaking, noise is any electrical phenomenon that is unwelcomed in an electrical system. This article is the first of a three-part series about noise in the signal chain. Here we focus on the internal sources of noise found in all semiconductor devices: thermal, shot, avalanche, flicker, and popcorn noise. A procedure to estimate noise voltage will be given along with an example. Finally, a free calculator is presented that aids in estimating noise under conditions that are not specified in a device data sheet.

Implement Heightened Security with a SHA-256 Master/Slave Authentication System

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The DS28C22 is a DeepCover® secure authenticator with I²C interface that uses the SHA-256 algorithm for bidirectional authentication. Additional features, including a 3Kb user EEPROM array, multiple memory protection methods and advanced physical security, combine to provide the ultimate in cost-effective IP protection, clone prevention, and authentication. This document describes operating principles of the device, its special features, and its typical application environment.

Water and Power in the Internet of Everything

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The Internet of Things (IoT) will change everything about everyday life, once every thing is connected to the Internet! The networked toaster will send analytics to your favorite Internet company to track your gluten intake! But is this really what we should expect from the proliferation of sensors and network technology? Is this what we really want? In fact, the IoT is already here, but in a limited capacity. The IoT will continue to roll out, but not all at once in a glorious deployment of silicon and services The IoT will emerge in limited phases, in places and tasks where more intelligent real-time management of resources will improve our lives in meaningful ways. In this case, What resources, we all ask, will benefit the most from added intelligence? And what sensors and technology can bring this information to the IoT? This article will discuss how two of our planet’s most vital resources, electricity and water, stand the most to gain from a much more intelligent sensing network. We'll also show that the energy smart grid is already an active IoT, but really just the beginning.… Examples of the next waves in the IoT are already underway to help us manage these our precious resources better.

The Fundamentals of an ECDSA Authentication System

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There are two fundamentally different authentication schemes: symmetric systems, which rely on secret keys shared by host and authenticator, and asymmetric systems, such as the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA), which rely on a private key in the authenticator and a public key that the host uses to verify the authenticator. In open systems where third-party entities need to be authenticated, the management and protection of the secret keys can be a problem. Here is where ECDSA offers the required flexibility. This article introduces the ECDSA concept, its mathematical background, and shows how the method can be successfully deployed in practice.

Understanding Multidrop Address Assignments for Thermal Sensors

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In many thermal applications, it may be desired to utilize multiple temperature sensors, placed in different physical locations, to monitor the operating temperatures in predefined 'zones' within the system. To accommodate this desire, many thermal products have the added flexibility of user-defined slave addressing.

Analog Integration Drives Factory Integration

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Analog integration is driving the integrated factory. Advances in analog and mixed-signal ICs contribute greatly to factory productivity, efficiency, quality, safety, and security. These all lead to increased uptime and reduced maintenance costs. This integration enables robust machine to machine (M2M) communications and ultimately the internet of things (IoT). Distributed intelligence, smart machines, smart sensors, and the integration of factory data with business-management systems (information technology or IT) allows optimization of not only the factory process, but also material handling, machine utilization, scheduling, reporting, and throughput.

Thermal Management Handbook

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Maxim's Thermal Management Handbook includes temperature sensing and fan control concepts, circuits and application guidelines. Thermistors, thermocouples, RTDs, and various IC temperature sensors (local temperature sensors, remote temperature sensors, analog temperature sensors, digital temperature sensors, and temperature switches) are discussed, as well as various approaches to fan speed control.