This application note explores the benefits of MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) technology over standard crystal technology in accurate real-time clocks (RTCs).The most obvious advantage is size. Other areas where MEMS technology is superior—CMOS process and development, manufacturing and assembly, and environmental ruggedness—are also discussed.
Pulse-width modulation (PWM) margining is a simple technique to adjust the output voltage of power supplies. This application note discusses the effect of PWM on the power-supply output-voltage noise, the enabling and disabling of PWM, and the impact of the PWM lowpass filter. The MAX34451 system manager and the MAX15041 evaluation (EV) kit are used in this discussion.
High-speed and low-speed data converters serve critical functions in modern broadband mobile radios. This application note outlines how to determine high-speed data converter performance requirements in baseband sampling radio architectures. Also, system partition strategies and advantages are outlined when considering a high-speed analog front-end (AFE) solution.
Electrical engineers designing analog electronics commonly have to drive a capacitive load with an operational amplifier that cannot quite handle the required capacitance. Common approaches to handling this situation have limitations that are not always understood. Using simulation, we show these limitations and how to overcome them.
This application note addresses frequently asked questions (FAQs) about the control channel and operation of gigabit multimedia serial link (GMSL) serializer/deserializer (SerDes) devices. These products transport video and control information over low-cost shielded twisted pair (STP) or coax cables in vehicles. These questions are related to the serial link on these parts and the way it handles video data and control formation.
It is often difficult to find an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) that aligns with the analog input range, but also has the appropriate number of inputs, the needed size, and the correct sample speed. Especially for system designers working with wide voltage swings, there is a concern that scaling down the input signal to drive an ADC's full-scale range can significantly degrade the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This application note discusses what affects this SNR loss, how it can be quantified, and more importantly, how it can be minimized.
Using a wafer-level package (WLP) can reduce the overall size and cost of your solution. However when using a WLP IC, the printed circuit board (PCB) layout can become more complex and, if not carefully planned, result in an unreliable design. This article presents some PCB design considerations and general recommendations for choosing a 0.4mm- or 0.5mm-pitch WLP for your application.
This application note explains how to layout the MAX20021/MAX20022 automotive quad power-management ICs (PMICs) to maximize performance and minimize emissions. Example images of a four-layer layout are provided.
This article describes a systematic approach for calculating the total DC error budget of a current-sense amplifier (CSA). The individual sources of error are discussed and a method for estimating the total error budget is presented. Finally, a step-by-step process explains how to use calculator software, developed to help quickly compute the total error of the selected CSA.
The MAX14921 analog front-end (AFE), combined with an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and a voltage reference, form a high-performance, cost-effective solution for battery (cell stack) measurement. To achieve highest accuracy, care must be taken with the printed circuit board (PCB) layout. This application note provides a few layout suggestions that, when followed, help you to achieve the highest level of accuracy that your solution is capable of delivering.
In this application note, the parameters and calculations needed in the selection of external components for optimal performance of the MAX16990/MAX16992 in boost configurations are reviewed. Next, the selection of compensation components is discussed and a general method that can be extrapolated to compensate any boost regulator is offered. A calculator is provided to help the user in the selection of external components, compensation design, and the evaluation of power-supply performance. A reference design, showing how the devices can be used in an automotive preboost application, is discussed as is the optimal layout for this boost regulator.
This application note describes how to build, debug, and run applications on the on-board MAXQ622 microcontroller to interface with the DS8005 dual smart card interface. This is demonstrated in both IAR Embedded Workbench and the Rowley CrossWorks IDE, using sample code provided with the kit.
We can apply a BiCMOS integrated circuit with only resistors and no transistors to solve a difficult design problem. The mythically perfect operational amplifier's gain and temperature coefficient are dependent on external resistor values. Maxim precision resistor arrays are manufactured together on a single die and then automatically trimmed, to ensure close ratio matching. This guarantees that the operational amplifier (op amp) gain and temperature coefficient are predictable and reliable, even with large production volumes.
This usage and configuration guide contains important information needed to properly configure the MAX5880, a high-density downstream cable QAM modulator and digital upconverter (DUC). This document supplements information found in the MAX5880 data sheet, covering such topics as configuration with the MAX5882, calculation of the data input interface bandwidth, digital predistortion configuration, and printed circuit board layout considerations. Configuration scripts and setup examples for the MAX5880 are also included.
There are differences between the operation of low-frequency AC transformers and electronic transformers that supply current to MR16 lamps, and there are also differences in the current draw for MR16 halogen lamps and MR16 LED lamps. These contrasts typically prevent an MR16 LED lamp from operating with most electronic transformers. This article explains how a high-brightness (HB) LED driver optimized for MR16 lamps will allow LED lamps to be compatible with most electronic transformers.