Unlike many other cellular standards, NCDMA is required by the 3GPP2 standard to perform spectrum inversion in the physical layer before transmission and after reception. With todayâs vast selection of radio frequency (RF) transceivers and baseband processors, it is easy to imagine how one could come across a set of RF transceiver and baseband processor that have mismatched spectrum in the transmit and receive paths. This simple oversight will result in noncompliance to the 3GPP2 standard and failure to demodulate. However, there are a few simple techniques that can help determine if spectrum inversion has been performed on a signal.
The DS28E35 is a DeepCover® Secure Authenticator that provides a FIPS 186 based ECDSA public-key crypto-authentication method. Additional features including a 1Kb User EEPROM array, decrement-only counter, and advanced physical security combine to provide the ultimate in cost-effective IP protection, clone prevention, and peripheral authentication. Step-by-step this application note describes the necessary device setup procedure, the authentication process, and discusses user memory functions and the deviceâs software-controlled down-counter. An appendix includes byte-level communication sequences that correspond to each of these steps.
The combination of aging electricity grid infrastructure and renewable portfolio standards present new challenges in the distribution automation space worldwide. In this application note, we review three key areas: asset protection, security, and asset management. In each area, device-level silicon provides benefits to ease the transition to a complete smart grid.
The MAX14920/MAX14921 is a high-accuracy battery-measurement analog front-end (AFE) ideal for cell balancing and battery-measurement applications. The performance of the system in which the MAX14920/MAX14921 is used, however, depends highly on the components that support and surround it. This application note provides a framework for, and examples of, selecting system architectures and building blocks that meet diverse accuracy and cost requirements.
This application note describes how to modify demo code or meter application code so it can be compiled and linked with new computation engine (CE) code images for the 71M6531/71M6532 and 71M6533/71M6534 and 71M6541/71M6542/71M6543 family of electricity metering ICs.
This application note provides a comparison between the single-phase OMU and HPL firmware solutions available for the 78M6612 and 78M6613 programmable systems-on-chips (SoCs) and the new 78M6610+LMU energy measurement processor. Engineers using these previous solutions can use this application note to help consider design conversion to the 78M6610+LMU.
The MAX13256, a 10 Watt transformer driver, is an improved way to convey power across isolation boundaries. As with all transformer drivers, good system performance requires good transformer specification. Though many transformers can potentially work with the MAX13256, not all transformer data sheets are specified with a transformer driver application in mind. This application note discusses how to specify a transformer that meets your application needs.
Noise is a common problem in mixed-signal ASICs, degrading performance and jeopardizing the completion of products. This application note gives hints and tips for adding external circuits that make many of these ASICs operational for prototyping or shippable as final products. Ways to optimize the ASIC by correcting noise in analog circuits, making adjustments, calibrating gain and offset, and cleaning power sources are discussed. The payoff is quicker time to market and even the prevention of an extra ASIC manufacturing spin.
Pulse-width modulation (PWM) generators are integrated in nearly every switching power device. The methods of implementing integrated PWM generators are well-known. This application note is prompted by a customer who asked for a single-device standalone analog PWM waveform generator.
This application note illustrates how using a hysteretic step-down converter instead of the battery itself to power the RF PA greatly improves PA efficiency and extends battery life. The basics of this converter along with the importance and benefits of using bypass mode are discussed.
What could be more basic than a voltage reference—a simple, constant reference voltage? As with all design topics, there are tradeoffs. This article discusses the different types of voltage references, their key specifications, and the design tradeoffs, including accuracy, temperature-independence, current drive capability, power dissipation, stability, noise, and cost.
With the diminishing availability of plastic dual-in-line package (PDIP) static random access memory (SRAMs), the DS1216 SmartWatch products are rapidly approaching end-of-life. Most of the SmartWatch products can be replaced using a pin-compatible, equivalent-density 5V Phantom clock module. This replacement module provides the customer with a drop-in, one-piece solution with an expected data retention life of at least 10 years.
This application note describes how to recycle lithium-ion (Li+) batteries from older devices for use in other electronic devices, such as toys. This can all be done without the need for a microcontroller (or the required software). One challenge is that the battery charger in these older devices cannot usually be reused. The designer needs to create their own charger circuit, which this application note explains how to do in detail.
Malware injection has become a critical threat to embedded systems. Implementing an asymmetric cryptography-based secure boot is the best protection against this class of attacks. This application note describes the key principles of such a secure boot and explains how to implement it with the DeepCover® MAXQ1050 secure microcontroller.
In the face of security vulnerabilities in health and safety applications, governments and industry leaders have focused on security weaknesses in the design and protection of electronic devices. This article explains how using hardware security ICs dramatically reduces the risk of unauthorized access to vital devices, peripherals, and computer systems at a low cost and with minimal impact on designs.