App note from OSRAM about LED rework on signages and their demand for more sophosticated tools. Link here (PDF)
SMT LEDs have became more and more popular in video wall and signage applications, replacing radial LEDs. This leads to more difficulties during the repair or replacement of failed LEDs on PCBs, especially for QFN (Quad Flat No-lead) packages, as there is no exposed lead. This application note provides basic information on how to rework the SMT LEDs in video wall and signage applications. To describe the rework process the DISPLIX Oval LED was chosen an example, as the rework of this LED is more challenging due to the lack of exposed lead and the oval lens on top. However, the procedure is also suitable for other LEDs. In this application note details on the materials used, examples of suitable equipment and the process are presented and described. Finally, the test results of the LED after the rework process are presented, showing that in this case the rework procedure did not cause any damage to the LED itself.
White paper about matrix LED usage from Integrated Silicon Solution Inc. (ISSI). Link here (PDF)
People today come in contact with a wide range of consumer electronics (CE) devices in their daily lives. CE devices have become increasingly complex with added functionality enabled by MCU’s which provide the intelligence for automating functions. Control panels used in appliances and other equipment leverage MCUs and several integrated circuits to enable functions, such as sensing, process control and user interface (UI).
The user interface consists of input controls, visual and audio feedback used to configure the product to perform complex tasks. An aesthetically pleasing UI is a major differentiating feature for home appliances such as ovens, washing machines and refrigerators. Home appliance UIs commonly use capacitive or inductive touch sensing to provide an easy to clean interface unmatched by mechanical buttons. In addition to touch sensing, a UI has to provide audio and visual feedback in response to the user selection. The UI may not be the most important factor in determining the commercial success of CE devices. However, once parity is established on the major functions such as washing capacity, energy efficiency, etc, the UI becomes a key differentiator. Today, parity has been established on most of the important factors making the UI a product differentiating factor.
As the trend continues to move away from purely mechanical switches to a fully electronic interface expect to see demand for LEDs and drivers to continue increasing.
App note from ON Semiconductor about eFuse or Electronic fuse. Link here (PDF)
The primary function of an Electronic Fuse, or eFuse, is to limit current, the same function provided by any fuse or positive temperature coefficient device (PTC). An eFuse, however, provides this function with much more versatility than either of these devices. An eFuse, unlike a standard fuse, need not be replaced after it functions and eFuses also respond more rapidly than a either a fuse or PTC. eFuses can also limit current in situations in which a traditional fuses and PTCs will not work. This is especially true when voltage is first provided to a circuit, such as during a hot plug operation, when inrush current can be extremely high. This application note will explain the basic operation of an eFuse’s current limit function and explain important eFuse concepts such as Overload and Short Circuit currents, and Kelvin versus Direct connection of the eFuse’s current sense resistor.
App note discussing extended features of NCP12600, NCP12600 is a multi-mode controller for offline power supplies by ON Semiconductor. Link here (PDF)
Beside the novel multi−mode structure it embarks, the NCP12600 packs a lot of features such as an efficient short−circuit protection architecture, a start−up sequence with a slow switching frequency ramp−up, a fast reset when latched and an auto−recovery scheme when line cycle dropout occurs in latched versions. Let’s discover these novelties in the present application note.
LEDs used in a controlled environment greenhouse farms, an app note from Würth Elektronik. Link here (PDF)
Greenhouse farms may not be a new technology but with an every growing world population and the move towards sustainability, intensive yet highly efficient and standardized food production will increasingly become the norm in future years opening a potentially huge new agricultural sector that incorporates the latest technologies from the bioscience and engineering fields. But how can researchers and personnel from these separate fields understand the mutually dependent requirements of indoor greenhouses? Photosynthesis is the process that converts water and carbon dioxide into complex carbohydrates (i.e. sugars) and oxygen using energy from light. However, although the energy radiated by the sun that reaches the earth’s surface consists of the entire spectrum of visible light (and more), plants only utilize specific frequencies of light for photosynthesis. These frequencies are related to the absorption characteristics of different pigments that are present within organelles called chloroplasts that are responsible for different functions of photosynthesis.
Light emitting diodes are solid-state, light generating components that, have become and will continue to be one of the greatest drivers in the expansion of internal greenhouses due to their advantages over incandescent bulbs, fluorescent bulbs, high-pressure sodium lamps and mercury lamps. Their main advantage stems from their ability to generate specific wavelengths of light. To meet the requirements for Horticultural LED’s for Indoor-farming, Würth Elektronik offers the WL-SMDC SMD Mono-color Ceramic LED Waterclear series of LEDs. The WL-SMDC range has been expanded to include wavelengths of 450 nm (Deep Blue), 660 nm (Hyper Red) and 730 nm (Far Red), which have been selected to match the absorption spectra of photosynthetic pigments. In addition to the existing products in the range, a diverse range of combinations is possible that can be catered to the target cultivar.
Application note form Würth Elektronik about EM radiation radiated from inductors in DC-DC converters. Link here (PDF)
This Application Note focuses on the Electro-Magnetic (EM) radiation behavior of power inductor(s) in DC-DC converters, which is dependent on several parameters such as ripple current, switching frequency, rise & fall time of a switching device, the core material and its permeability and suggests several design tips to mitigate these EMI effects.