The ArduINA226 power monitor

via Dangerous Prototypes

ArduPicLab published the details on how to build a current, voltage and power datalogger with Arduino and the INA226 module:

In the past I have developed various projects of ammeters based on Hall effect current sensors such as the ACS712, or on High-Side Current-Sense Amplifiers such as the MAX4080SASA or made with operational amplifiers. All these systems have an analog output which must then be digitized. The INA226 sensor has a digital output and incorporates a 16-bit ADC for which a high accuracy and precision is obtained.

MCP4141 based digital potentiometer

via Dangerous Prototypes

Dilshan Jayakody has been working on an open-source hardware project MCP4141 based digital potentiometer, that is available on GitHub:

The main objective of this project is to create an experimental prototype of a digital potentiometer using Microchip’s MCP4141 IC. MCP4141 is available with end-to-end resistances of 5KΩ, 10KΩ, 50kΩ, and 100KΩ. This potentiometer-module can drive MCP4141 with any of the above mention resistances.

Together, let’s make COVID-19 history – CONFERENCE ANNOUNCEMENT

via Arduino Blog

Combating COVID-19 Conference: A Collaborative Arduino Community Initiative to take place on April 2nd at 5pm CET

To the Arduino community:

Humanity is facing one of the most trying events in its history and as technologists, makers and designers we are asking ourselves how can we help. 

How can we contribute to the efforts to save lives, to help our fellow human beings?

All of us have been thinking about this and observing what is going on in the world.

We have seen communities, including all of you, trying to design devices that would help hospitals cope with the lack of equipment; we’ve seen people firing up their imagination and their 3D printers in an effort to build something that could save even a single human life.

Having noticed that a large number of these efforts are using Arduino technology we reached out to a number of these communities to offer our help, donate some hardware, provide engineering support, and do whatever we can considering that we are a small company.

One thing that was striking to us is the large amount of duplication in the work people are doing. Many people are spending valuable time trying to overcome similar challenges in their design, rather than sharing their solution to the benefit of all and moving on to the next hurdle. Also, there are different teams with different strengths and skill sets that would be better working together than apart.

We must do better, be more effective, work together, and merge efforts to solve these problems and reach our common goal quicker and more efficiently.

Because of all of this, we want to invite as many of these projects as possible to an online gathering, to get people talking, to offer help on how to design and make hardware, how to think about the software, and how to scale manufacturing (we would like to share our knowledge in making tens of thousands of open source boards per week). Finally and most importantly, we must take guidance from medical professionals so that they can steer requirements and validate the designs so our efforts have the most positive impact. 

Join us online on April 2nd to understand how we can work together to do better together, and together let’s make COVID-19 history.

— David Cuartielles and Massimo Banzi, Arduino co-founders (on behalf of Arduino)


Combating COVID-19 Conference: A Collaborative Arduino Community Initiative will take place on April 2nd at 5pm CET.

This is an open invitation to anyone currently using Arduino-compatible devices within a project to design and manufacture ventilators, respirators or other devices to combat COVID-19. Be you a doctor, an academic, a professional company/researcher or an innovator, you are more than welcome to join the conference. 

The conference will be hosted in Zoom (link available soon), with the ability to interact with Arduino and other members on the conference via Discord (free download here). 

There are different ways to participate in the conference: you can present your Arduino-based solution to tackle COVID-19, support other community projects, or provide expert advice — we are all stronger together.

(N.B. If you want to present and share your project, please complete this form by 12:00 (noon) CET on April 2nd.)

More information on the conference will be available soon. In the meantime, you can learn more about Arduino’s overall response to COVID-19 emergency here.

FluSense takes on COVID-19 with Raspberry Pi

via Raspberry Pi

Raspberry Pi devices are often used by scientists, especially in biology to capture and analyse data, and a particularly striking – and sobering – project has made the news this week. Researchers at UMass Amherst have created FluSense, a dictionary-sized piece of equipment comprising a cheap microphone array, a thermal sensor, an Intel Movidius 2 neural computing engine, and a Raspberry Pi. FluSense monitors crowd sounds to forecast outbreaks of viral respiratory disease like seasonal flu; naturally, the headlines about their work have focused on its potential relevance to the COVID-19 pandemic.

A photo of Forsad Al Hossain and Tauhidur Rahman with the FluSense device alongside a logo from the Amherst University of Massachusetts

Forsad Al Hossain and Tauhidur Rahman with the FluSense device. Image courtesy of the University of Massachusetts Amherst

The device can distinguish coughing from other sounds. When cough data is combined with information about the size of the crowd in a location, it can provide an index predicting how many people are likely to be experiencing flu symptoms.

It was successfully tested in in four health clinic waiting rooms, and now, PhD student Forsad Al Hossain and his adviser, assistant professor Tauhidur Rahman, plan to roll FluSense out in other large spaces to capture data on a larger scale and strengthen the device’s capabilities. Privacy concerns are mitigated by heavy encryption, and Al Hossain and Rahman explain that the emphasis is on aggregating data, not identifying sickness in any single patient.

The researchers believe the secret to FluSense’s success lies in how much of the processing work is done locally, via the neural computing engine and Raspberry Pi: “Symptom information is sent wirelessly to the lab for collation, of course, but the heavy lifting is accomplished at the edge.”

A bird's-eye view of the components inside the Flu Sense device

Image courtesy of the University of Massachusetts Amherst

FluSense offers a different set of advantages to other tools, such as the extremely popular self-reporting app developed by researchers at Kings College Hospital in London, UK, together with startup Zoe. Approaches like this rely on the public to sign up, and that’s likely to skew the data they gather, because people in some demographic groups are more likely than others to be motivated and able to participate. FluSense can be installed to capture data passively from groups across the entire population. This could be particularly helpful to underprivileged groups who are less likely to have access to healthcare.

Makers, engineers, and scientists across the world are rising to the challenge of tackling COVID-19. One notable initiative is the Montreal General Hospital Foundation’s challenge to quickly design a low-cost, easy to use ventilator which can be built locally to serve patients, with a prize of CAD $200,000 on offer. The winning designs will be made available to download for free.

There is, of course, loads of chatter on the Raspberry Pi forum about the role computing has in beating the virus. We particularly liked this PSA letting you know how to free up some of your unused processing power for those researching treatments.

screenshot of the hand washer being built from a video on instagram

Screenshot via @deeplocal on Instagram

And to end on a cheering note, we *heart* this project from @deeplocal on Instagram. They’ve created a Raspberry Pi-powered soap dispenser which will play 20 seconds of your favourite song to keep you at the sink and make sure you’re washing your hands for long enough to properly protect yourself.

The post FluSense takes on COVID-19 with Raspberry Pi appeared first on Raspberry Pi.

From Qwiic Temp Sensing to Binho USB Hosting

via SparkFun: Commerce Blog

Hello everyone and welcome to another Friday Product Post. We have been hard at work while staggering shifts and maintaining physical distance to make sure new products still arrive. We may not have a huge amount every week for a while, but we are doing our safest and best!

This week we start a new version of our classic TMP102 Digital Temperature Sensor, now with Qwiic! Following our new sensor, we have three new Binho products including a USB host hub, breadboard breakout, and a Qwiic adapter. We finish out the week with the Logitecch C270 webcam - it can be found in the SparkFun DLI Kit for Jetson Nano but it can also be really helpful if you are working from home.

Speaking of which, do you have bored kids at home? Keep them engaged and learning with the help of our Spring Kit Sale - available through April 17th! Designed with beginners in mind, these kits offer a springboard into electronics through circuit building, creating e-textile crafts, measuring the weather, practicing soldering, and exploring the Internet of Things (IoT).

Now onto the new products!

Qwiic, cheap and digital temperature sensing

SparkFun Digital Temperature Sensor - TMP102 (Qwiic)

SparkFun Digital Temperature Sensor - TMP102 (Qwiic)

SEN-16304
$5.95

We all like to know the temperature, right? Well, with the SparkFun Qwiic TMP102 Digital Temperature Sensor, we've made it about as easy as it gets. Based on the original Digital Temperature Sensor Breakout - TMP102, we've added Qwiic connectors to bring this board into our plug-and-play Qwiic Ecosystem and added an address jumper instead of breaking out the address pin.


Binho Nova Multi-Protocol USB Host Adapter

Binho Nova Multi-Protocol USB Host Adapter

DEV-16382
$149.00

The Binho Nova Multi-Protocol USB Host Adapter allows one to interface their computer directly to hardware circuits. This device is powered by the USB connection to the host PC and is also able to provide downstream power to test circuits.


Binho Nova Multi-Protocol USB Host Adapter

Binho Nova Multi-Protocol USB Host Adapter

DEV-16382
$149.00

The Binho Breadboard Breakout breaks a male 2x5 1.27mm connector out to breadboard-friendly 2.54mm pitch headers. It's an easy way to interface your Binho Nova host adapter with other circuits using standard jumper wires as well.


Binho Qwiic Interface Board

Binho Qwiic Interface Board

BOB-16420
$7.50

The Binho Qwiic Interface Board makes it easy for you to interface your Binho Nova host adapter with up to four strings of Qwiic devices. It also breaks out all of the pins to a series of headers for convenient jumping to other circuits, or perhaps to your Logic Analyzer to monitor everything while you develop and debug.


Logitech C270 Webcam - USB 2.0

Logitech C270 Webcam - USB 2.0

SEN-16299
$39.95

This is the Logitech C270 Webcam. With a sleek compact look and a black finish, this economical choice provides a 720p/30FPS HD resolution in a 16:9 widescreen format. The Logitech C270 webcam is compatible with most major messaging applications like Skype, Windows Live Messenger, Yahoo Messenger and more, giving you a wide selection of use.


That's it for this week! As always, we can't wait to see what you make! Shoot us a tweet @sparkfun, or let us know on Instagram or Facebook. We’d love to see what projects you’ve made!

Never miss a new product!

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Enginursday: Switching Sensors with a WS2811 Addressable LED Driver

via SparkFun: Commerce Blog

Sometimes we sign up to do crazy things - like going skydiving with your best friend or running a marathon in flip flops. In this case I wound up hatching a plan to use 192 of the same I2C sensor in an interactive installation. As the sheer size and complexity of the goal sank in I grew increasingly curious if there was a simple way to wire all those sensors together. The result is elegant in theory, noisy in reality, and probably won't work at scale. However it is really fun to talk about so stick around to hear about using addressable LED drivers as software switches!

A Collaborative Staff

The task: create an interactive installation that allows young children to play with sound and color collaboratively. When the Museum of Boulder asked me and Joe Ryan create this we started thinking big! Joe's fantastic idea was to create a larger-than-life musical staff that kids could place notes on to craft their very own song. The color of the notes would determine what kind of instrument was used. After settling on a size (four measures, four positions per measure, and 12 notes per position) we needed to find a way to actually make it work.

Color Nodes

Sensing colors has been made easy by ICs such as the ISL29125. The general idea was to use one of these at every note position along with an addressable LED that could be used to both illuminate the notes for a reading and serve as a visual guide for getting started. A central system would take readings to determine which notes should be played and by which instruments. The challenge was to connect 192 I2C devices that all use the same address.

There are several ways to accomplish this task - perhaps using a tree of I2C multiplexers, using several independent sensing groups each with its own microcontroller, and even extravagant methods using wireless communication. I went in search of a solution that would minimize cost and installation complexity. What I found was the WS2811 addressable LED driver IC.

WS2811-Based Switch Design

Knowing that LED data would need to be sent to every node gave me an idea - what if the power to the color sensor could be controlled in the same way? Perhaps this would allow all the sensors to share one I2C bus, as long as only one was powered at a time. In retrospect it is hard to remember which search terms exactly led me to what I needed but eventually I found the datasheet for the WS2811. A companion to the popular WS2812B addressable led, the WS2811 encapsulates the same driver but instead breaks out the R, G and B output pins so that you can attach your own LEDs.

The datasheet indicated that the outputs were constant-current drains of up to 18.5 mA. Not ideal - a controllable voltage output would have been simpler to use but fortunately we know how to convert current to voltage and vice-versa.

V = I • R
I = 18.5 mA
V = 3.3 V (using ISL29125 supply voltage)
R = V / I = (3.3 / 0.0185) = 178.37 Ω

A 178.37 ohm resistor with 18.5 mA current flowing through it will drop 3.3 V. In other words a constant current driver set to pull 18.5 mA from 3.3 V through a 178.37 ohm resistor would need to set its output at 0V!

Now it's not quite that simple, unfortunately. It would be if the LED driver was a true "analog" constant current driver, but LED drivers typically use Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) to approximate constant current. The duty cycle of the PWM signal is what we perceive as the brightness of the LED. When trying to use an LED driver as a switch you run into a problem - your switch changes quite frequently, even when you have it set to just one value!

PWM Cuty Cycle Diagram
pwm duty cycle diagram
Image: Android Developer's Site

You might hope that asking the LED for either a 0% or 100% duty cycle would work well enough, but we can't guarantee how the driver operates. In the case of the WS2811 I found that a channel value of 0 results in a true 100% duty cycle (this makes sense for a common anode LED driver), but the max value (255) only approaches a 6% duty cycle.

The ability to reach a true 100% duty cycle is good for powering the sensor because it means minimal noise. The fact that the supply voltage will occasionally come up, however, is concerning because that may cause any one of the sensors to turn on and interfere with communication on the I2C bus. In order to combat this I used a low-pass RC filter that incorporates the current-limiting resistor.

The WS2811 uses a PWM frequency of 2 kHz, so a 6% pulse would have a width of (6 / 100) • (1 / 2000) = 30 μs. A 30 μs square wave pulse contains many frequency components, the slowest of which is (1 / 30 μs) = 33.3 kHz. In order to block that frequency one would choose a corner frequency below that value. Using a simulated circuit on falstad.com/circuit, I played around with various capacitor values to get a good balance of high-frequency blocking (higher capacitor values) and the time it takes to power on a sensor (low capacitor values)

falstad circuit simulator for RC filter on LED driver output

falstad.com/circuit simulation of WS2811 switch

fc = 1 / (2 • π • R • C)
R = 220 Ω (choose a common resistor value greater than 170.37 Ω)
C = 1 μF
fc = 1 / (2 • π • 220 • 1 • 10-6) = 723 Hz

Using the design parameters from above I laid out a prototype schematic and board in Eagle.

circuit schematic in Eagle PCB

Testing

In an effort to move quickly I ordered PCBs and the WS2811 driver ICs at the same time. In fact my original design used a slightly more complicated circuit that I was able to simplify during testing. We've been discussing the simpified circuit but the boards contain a few extra components and a host of white-wire fixes. That's a lesson in why you should always do a 1:1 scale package check for any new parts that you intend on using! Below is an image of the prototype as tested:

prototype v01 with white wire fixes and simplified circuit

To test the board I wrote a quick test sketch. It uses the FastLED library to control the LED data line (for the WS2811 as well as the WS2812B illumiator LED), and the SparkFun ISL29125 Arduino library to read from the RGB sensor.

/******************************************************************************
Color_Node_Test.ino

Test sketch for for turning on/off an ISL29125 RGB sensor using a WS2811 LED 
driver IC. 

Owen Lyke 
25 Mar 2020

Requires:
SparkFun_ISL29125_Arduino_Library
FastLED library by Daniel Garcia
ESP32 based microcontroller such as the SparkFun ESP32 Thing Plus (https://www.sparkfun.com/products/15663)

Setup:
- Build your own color node based on the schematics shown at: https://www.sparkfun.com/news/3266
- Connect the I2C pins SCL and SDA to the Wire port of your ESP32 based board
- Connect the LED data line to pin 18 of the ESP32 on your board
- Connect GND and 5V lines

This code is beerware.
Distributed as-is; no warranty is given. 
******************************************************************************/

/********************/
/* USER SETUP BEGIN */

#define DISPLAY_TITLES 1      // 1 to print field names to serial
#define DISPLAY_RGB 0           // 1 to print r g b values to serial
#define DISPLAY_HUE 1           // 1 to print computed h value to serial
#define DISPLAY_COLOR 1         // 1 to print nearest color to serial

// Define a type to hold detectable colors
typedef struct _color_t {
  float hue;
  const char* name;
}color_t;

// Here's the list of colors that the system can name on its own (you may add your own based on hue angle [0.0, 360] )
color_t colors[] = {
  {0.0, "Red"},
  {60.0, "Yellow"},
  {120.0, "Green"},
  {180.0, "Cyan"},
  {240.0, "Blue"},
  {300.0, "Magenta"},
};

/* USER SETUP END */
/******************/

// Includes
#include <math.h>
#include <Wire.h>
#include <FastLED.h>          // Click here to get the library: http://librarymanager/All#FastLED_Daniel_Gracia
#include "SparkFunISL29125.h" // Click here to get the library: http://librarymanager/All#SparkFun_ISl29125

// RGB sensor control
SFE_ISL29125 RGB_sensor;
unsigned int red = 0;
unsigned int green = 0;
unsigned int blue = 0;

// WS2811 / WS2812B control
#define DATA_PIN 18
#define NUM_LEDS 2    // Each color node has two 'leds' - one WS2811 to control the sensor power and one WS2812B for illumintation
CRGB leds[NUM_LEDS];

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(115200);                                     // Start Serial 

  FastLED.addLeds<WS2811, DATA_PIN, RGB>(leds, NUM_LEDS);

  sensorPower(true);
  FastLED.show();
  delay(1000);

  while(!RGB_sensor.init()){                                // Initialize the ISL29125 with simple configuration so it starts sampling
    Serial.println("trying to start the sensor!");
    delay(50);
  }
  Serial.println("Sensor Initialization Successful\n\r");
}

void loop() {
  /* Begin Taking a Reading */

  sensorPower(true);                // Turn on the sensor  
  setLED(200, 200, 255);            // Turn on the LED to illuminate the subject area
  FastLED.show();                   // ^- adjust the balance of white here... blue seems to need some help (higher Vf than other leds..)

  delay(2);                         // some time for sensor to come online
  RGB_sensor.init();                // now perform initialization since the sensor had been asleep

  delay(200); // sensor continuously runs ADC at ~ 10 hz so to be sure wait 0.2 seconds before reading

  delay(300); // delay to combat voltage sag from turning on all the leds...
              // I've experimentally determined that while there is no LED brightness that completely 
              // eliminates noise in detected color there is a minimum total delay between turning on
              // the leds and taking a sample that gets darn close. Its approx 500 ms total (including
              // time dedicated to letting the sensor read)

              // the final product may as well turn on all the leds, wait half a second, and then sample
              // all of the color sensors rapidly. 


  red = RGB_sensor.readRed();     // Sample the sensor
  green = RGB_sensor.readGreen();
  blue = RGB_sensor.readBlue();


  sensorPower(false);             // Turn off the sensor
  setLED(0, 0, 0);                // Turn off the LED
  FastLED.show();                 // Apply changes to the 'LED' data (includes WS2811 'switch' changes)

                                  // Now let's try to sample the sensor to show that it has really been shut down
  delay(1);                       // Time for the sensor VDD line to fall to 0
  RGB_sensor.init();
  RGB_sensor.readRed();
  RGB_sensor.readGreen();
  RGB_sensor.readBlue();

  printResults();                 // Show the results on the Serial monitor

  delay(200);                     // delay 200 ms before taking another reading
}

void sensorPower(bool on){
  LEDS.setBrightness(255);                                  // Ensure full brightness so that WS2811 controls are not scaled

  if(on){
    leds[0] = CRGB(0, 0, 0);                                // Turn on the sensor by writing a 0 value to the R channel
  }else{
    leds[0] = CRGB(255, 0, 0);                              // Turn off the sensor by writing 255 to the red channel
  }
}

void setLED(uint8_t R, uint8_t G, uint8_t B){
  leds[1] = CRGB(R, G, B);                                  // The LED is the second item in the 'led' array (the first is the WS2811 sensor switch)
}



/*********************/
/* UTILITY FUNCTIONS */

float max3( float Rp, float Gp, float Bp, uint8_t* index ){
  // hacky way to find maximum of three (not tested well or even well-thought-through)...
  float Cmax = 0.0;
   if(Rp >= Gp){
      if(Rp >= Bp){
        Cmax = Rp;
        *index = 0;
      }
    }
    if(Gp >= Bp){
      if(Gp >= Rp){
        Cmax = Gp;
        *index = 1;
      }
    }
    if(Bp >= Gp){
      if(Bp >= Rp){
        Cmax = Bp;
        *index = 2;
      }
    }
    return Cmax;
}

float min3( float Rp, float Gp, float Bp, uint8_t* index ){
  // hacky way to find minimum of three (not tested well or even well-thought-through)...
  float Cmin = 0.0;
   if(Rp <= Gp){
      if(Rp <= Bp){
        Cmin = Rp;
        *index = 0;
      }
    }
    if(Gp <= Bp){
      if(Gp <= Rp){
        Cmin = Gp;
        *index = 1;
      }
    }
    if(Bp <= Gp){
      if(Bp <= Rp){
        Cmin = Bp;
        *index = 2;
      }
    }
    return Cmin;
}

void printResults( void ){
    float Rp = (float)red/255;
    float Gp = (float)green/255;
    float Bp = (float)blue/255;

    uint8_t max_ind = 0;
    uint8_t min_ind = 0;
    float Cmax = max3(Rp, Gp, Bp, &max_ind);
    float Cmin = min3(Rp, Gp, Bp, &min_ind);
    float delta = Cmax - Cmin;

    float hue = 0.0;
    if(Cmax == 0.0){
      hue = 0.0;
    }else{
      switch(max_ind){
        case 0: hue = 60 * (fmod(((Gp-Bp)/delta), 6.0)); break;
        case 1: hue = 60 * (((Bp-Rp)/delta) + 2); break;
        case 2: hue = 60 * (((Rp-Gp)/delta) + 4); break;
        default: break;
      }
    }

    // search list of colors for the closest one 
    //  (todo: when overall lux levels are low just say nothing is there)
    const char* identified_color = NULL;
    float prev_diff = 360.0;                              // start with a high (impossibly so) difference
    float diff = 0.0;
    uint8_t num_colors = sizeof(colors)/sizeof(color_t);
    for(uint8_t indi = 0; indi < num_colors; indi++){     // loop through all the named colors
      diff = abs(hue - colors[indi].hue);                     // find the difference between the selected color hue and the calculated hue
      if ( diff >= 180.0 ){                                   // correct for differences over 180 degrees because the spectrum is circular
        diff = 360.0 - diff;
      }
      if( diff < prev_diff ){                                 // if this difference is smaller change the detected color to this name
        prev_diff = diff;
        identified_color = colors[indi].name;
      }
    }

#if DISPLAY_RGB
#if DISPLAY_TITLES
    Serial.print("B: "); 
#endif
    Serial.print(blue);
    Serial.print(" ");

#if DISPLAY_TITLES
    Serial.print("R: "); 
#endif
    Serial.print(red);
    Serial.print(" ");

#if DISPLAY_TITLES
    Serial.print("G: "); 
#endif
    Serial.print(green);
    Serial.print(" ");
#endif

#if DISPLAY_HUE
#if DISPLAY_TITLES
    Serial.print("Hue: ");
#endif
    Serial.print(hue);
    Serial.print(" ");
#endif

#if DISPLAY_COLOR
#if DISPLAY_TITLES
    Serial.print("Color: ");
#endif
    Serial.print(identified_color);
    Serial.print(" ");
#endif

    Serial.println();
}

Using a digital logic analyzer I was able to record some great data. You can see that the rise time of the sensor VDD line matches what is expected from the simulation, as well as the same small ripples when the sensor is turned off. You can also see that the sensor responds to I2C transactions while it is powered. Shortly after sending the 'off' command, the VDD line falls and the sensor no longer responds to I2C transactions. This suggests that turning off unused sensors should be enough to allow using more than one sensor on the same I2C bus.

digital logic analzer trace of sensor VDD line and I2C transactions

Further Considerations

This project is a work in progress. To scale this single test up to an array of 192 nodes will present more challenges such as:

  • Sample speed - the test above does not leave any time for the sensor to make ADC conversions, so the readings come out as 0. In reality each sensor will need to be on for 100 to 200 ms to get a good sample.
  • I2C Bus Capacitance - generally it is challenging to use I2C over long distances because of the open-drain topology.

These challenges will likely preclude the use of this method in the Rainbow Forest project. Still, using the WS2811 in creative ways could like this can be useful in a host of projects that already involve addressable LEDs such as model train layouts, DIY LED shows with special effects, and much more!

If you use the WS2811 in a project of your own let us know!

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